The regular relative concord is then formed by prefixing a copy of the subject concord's vowel, preceded by a. Therefore, classes that are missing in Zulu create a gap in the numbering, as is the case with the missing classes 12, 13 and 16 (as well as those above 17). When attached to the simple form, it has an indefinite meaning, like "of any", used with negative verbs. Here’s a quick and simple definition:Some additional key details about figures of speech: 1. The locative is formed in two different ways, depending on the class of the noun. These include agglutinativity, a rich array of noun classes, extensive inflection for person (both subject and object), tense and aspect and a subject–verb–object word order. Quality: For example, wālipheka "he/she cooked it" consists of a stem -pheka "to cook", preceded in reverse order by an object prefix li- (class 5), the remote past tense marker -ā-, and the subject prefix u- (he/she/class 1, which becomes w- when a vowel follows). The remote past is used to indicate the distant past, the past preceding the recent past, and as a narrative past. The additional stem syllable also changes the tone pattern. Normally, verbs are cited in the stem of the principal present tense, which ends in -a, for example -wa "to fall", -dlá "to eat", -enza "to do, to make", -bôna "to see", -síza "to help", -sebénza "to work". The locative is a noun form that indicates a location associated with the noun. If you have always been craving to gain efficiency in English language and familiarize yourself with the figures of speech, here is your chance. B. W. Vilakazi is considered a pioneer of modem Zulu literature. Last Update: 2018-05-14 Usage Frequency: 1 Quality: Reference: Anonymous. However, like the recent past tense, a stative verb can be formed by changing the vowels of the last two vowels of the stem, depending on the ending of the verb. The locative form of pronouns is formed like it is for class 1 or 2 nouns, using the prefix ku- and no suffix. It is placed after the noun that is possessed, and receives a special possessive prefix that agrees with the preceding noun's class. Abstract nouns are often in class 14, loanwords in classes 9 and 5, and infinitives of verbs and nouns derived from them in class 15. The first- and second-person forms are created analogically from the copulative concords, by duplicating the vowel in the subject concord and then prefixing a. It can occur either alone or with an object prefix. The copulative adjective concord consists of just the simple noun prefix, except in class 9 where the full in- is used, and class 8 zin- which has an additional n. Forms for the first and second person exist as well. This type of statement can be described as paradoxical. They form a closed class; no new adjectives are created. (8) Never use a metaphor , simile or other figure of speech which you are used to seeing in print. The first form is the uncontracted form. The long form in -ile is found when the verb has a lengthened penultimate syllable (same as the present -ya-), otherwise the short form in -ē is used. They are formed exactly parallel, with one key difference: for relatives, the subject concord is used as the base rather than the noun prefix. figure translation in English-Zulu dictionary. These include:[1]. Zulu. Stative verbs often fulfill the function that an adjective has in English. Stative verbs are formed similarly to the recent past, but with a few differences: there is a separate negative form, there is no shorter form ending in -ē, and no participial form. The regular adjective concord is formed by prefixing a to the full noun prefix, with the vowel coalescing with the initial vowel of the noun prefix. Indeed, these tools abound in nearly every corner of life. ", Woza lapha uzame futhi! This differs per verb and is a lexical property of that particular infinitive form, and must therefore be learned for each one. Some nouns have locative forms without the suffix, using just the prefix. These two have fused into one word in modern Zulu, but remnants of their former status as two distinct words remain in various respects. From these, a special kind of verb called a stative verb can be formed, which describes being in the state of having completed that process, i.e. It has been created collecting TMs from the European Union and United Nations, and aligning the best domain-specific multilingual websites. Great is my boldness of speech toward you, great is my glorying of you: I am filled with comfort, I am exceeding joyful in all our tribulation. It is formed by prefixing the relative concord with, Distal ("that"), referring to something not near the speaker. The two forms have different grammatical functions, as detailed below. ", Wābaleka wangabheka emuva. Analytical English-Zulu Zulu-English dictionary at, This page was last edited on 18 January 2021, at 14:14. Usage Frequency: 1 Shaka kaSenzangakhona (c. July 1787 – 22 September 1828), also known as Shaka Zulu (Zulu pronunciation: ), was the King of the Zulu Kingdom from 1816 to 1828. The participial subject concords (subjP) are present whenever its verb is in participial form. Kwenzeni! However, in the wider sense, it can refer to any word that modifies a noun. Angiyokumsiza. word or phrase using figurative language—language that has other meaning than its normal definition For most nouns -ini is also suffixed, which causes various changes to the final vowel of the stem. When the noun is followed by the interrogative adjectives, After a negative verb, when the meaning is. MyMemory is the world's largest Translation Memory. Here is the last image below: Romans 5 that is the companion image to the one above about the figure of speech Anacoluthon. The different types of adjectives reflect the different prefixes that are used: Adjectives have the same tone classes that nouns do. Nouns are grouped into noun classes based on the prefix they have, with each class having a number. Like the true adjectives, relatives have two concords, a regular concord and a shorter copulative concord. A stative verb is not a fully functional verb, as it can only be inflected in the present tense and infinitive. The copulative is formed by prefixing the so-called "identifying prefix", which takes three different forms: By itself, the copulative form means "it is" or "it is a/the", such as: When a noun is equated with something else, the copulative is prefixed with a subject concord (see the verbs section) that matches the subject that the noun is equated with. Another very interesting figure of speech is personification. What is "recent" versus "remote" depends on the speaker. In the colloquial language, the recent past is often preferred to the remote past. The poem is constructed almost as if it were a history lesson focusing on paying respects to Shaka’s life. Thus, the application of the prefix spread rule can reveal the underlying tone of the first stem syllable. Listen to the audio pronunciation of Zulu figures of speech on pronouncekiwi. Figures of Speech song for literature ID: 116024 Language: English School subject: Literature Grade/level: intermediate Age: 12-17 Main content: Figures of speech Other contents: Add to my workbooks (3) Download file pdf Embed in my website or blog Add to Google Classroom As with the personal pronouns, class 17 is a neutral class. "True" adjectives are prefixed with the adjective concord. It is also used for consecutive action, and as a complement to certain auxiliary verbs and conjunctions. It is a noun in every respect, and therefore it has a simple form, locative, possessive and so on. The prefix occurs in two forms: the full form, and the simple or short form. the former belongs to a one-syllable prefix while the latter belongs to the stem, they become FH (falling-high). For example: The possessive prefix is formed from the subject concord of verbs (see the verbs section), plus á. Figures of speech used in the poem. No prefix may come between the object prefix and the stem. For nouns in class 1(a) or 2(a), which include all proper names of people, the locative is formed by prefixing kú- to the noun, dropping the augment. with "whose" as a relative. Figures of speech Match the concepts and the definitions. Tamil Translation. The subject concord must therefore always be present; the prefix cannot be added to the "bare" copulative. It corresponds to the English simple present or continuous present. Classes 14, 15 and 17 usually have no plural at all, but in rare instances class 6 is used to form a plural for these nouns. The following list shows the approximate way in which the contraction of the immediate future preceded, using the verb -síza "to help" as an example. The following table shows examples of underlying tone patterns, and the surface patterns that result after application of the rules. For example, the nouns ábafána "boys" and abángani "friends" belong to class 2, characterised by the prefix aba- , whereas isíbongo "surname" and isíhlahla "tree" belong to class 7, characterised by the prefix isi- . Reference: Anonymous, Last Update: 2020-05-20 Reference: Anonymous. Note that the combination of the spreading rules and the left deletion rule gives the impression of high tone "shifting" rightwards. The three alternative negative past forms are contracted to different degrees. Click, in phonetics, a suction sound made in the mouth. POETIC DEVICES & FIGURES OF SPEECH FUNCTION / EFFECT (N.B.) Sticking to them will only help you be a better writer or an orator. Every noun stem (without the prefix) has an inherent tone pattern, where each syllable is inherently high (H) or low (L). Adjectives in the stricter Bantu sense are referred to as "true adjectives" in this article. It indicates the possessor, or a more general association, and corresponds in meaning to the English preposition "of". The opposite, of course, is an understatement that makes a situation seem less important. Zulu (1964) cast and crew credits, including actors, actresses, directors, writers and more. Thus: However, when the two things being equated have the same noun class, the subject concord is left out: The substantive possessive forms of a noun also have a copulative of their own. Personification. The prefixes of nouns also have an inherent tone pattern, but this is the same for all nouns and noun classes. Figures of speech: Words, phrases or expressions used in a manner other than their literal meaning in order to produce a special effect. Secondary subject concords (subj2) are used for the subject on all verbs marked with negation and on verbs marked for the subjunctive mood. The subject may or may not be explicitly stated, as usual for verbs. The Zulu noun consists of two essential parts, the prefix and the stem. both syllables belong to the stem, they become FL (falling-low). The full prefix has an underlying HL pattern (the simple prefix has L, the augment has H), but the single-syllable prefixes of class 5, 9 and 11 have only H. Again, the underlying pattern may be modified by one or more tone rules, as seen in ubúntu, where the prefix is underlyingly úbu- but surfaces as ubú-. "He talks while he eats." Zulu orthography does not indicate vowel length or tone, but it can be important to note this in a description of grammar. The copulative form always uses the identifying prefix yi-. The subject concord must always be present, except in the infinitive and imperative forms. The primary subject concords (subj1) are used for the subject in all tenses of the positive indicative mood. ‘The Birth of Shaka’ by Oswald Mtshali is a free verse poem about a South African warrior and ruler by the name of Shaka. There is no distinction between long and short forms (-ile vs -ē) in these verbs. In regular Zulu spelling, where vowel length is not marked, this distinction becomes invisible. [clarification needed]. There are two different future tenses in Zulu, the immediate future and distant future. Every class is inherently singular or plural. A range of Zulu verbs indicate a change of state or a process, which tends towards some final goal (cf. Note that outside of the first- and second-person singular, the possessive stem has an underlying high tone. (9) The metaphor of consumption dominates this speech and connects each image. In a relative clause, when the relative concord is prefixed to a possessive form, i.e. Other figures of speech examples include euphemisms.. ", Ngamtshela ahambe. Since, poetry has so many things to learn about, it’s not at all easy to mug up all the instances where we are asked these in the poems. There are two sets of adjective concords: the regular adjective concord, and the shorter copulative concord. In this particular case, the noun is known to derive from ínhlâmvu, with a HH pattern, but that still leaves both HHLL and HHHH as possibilities. 2018-05-14 Usage Frequency: 1 negative instead of the noun form includes an initial,! Copy of the stem readily created from simple verbs by attaching various to... Narrative past puts Shaka on a pedestal as he describes the circumstances of his birth and death, clearly him... Used to indicate the distant past, the English copula be using just the prefix rule. In America definition: some additional key details about figures of speech in which statement. And with class 9 where the simple prefix has a high tone `` shifting ''.... 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Some additional key details about figures of speech anacoluthon and used in poem... Past is used in most circumstances, such as in the present tense is the default form a... Same way as for the object of the prefix yi- is used to indicate different tenses and.... An object prefix and the stem penultimate syllable, i.e and death, clearly idolizing him ''. Outside of the verb, as detailed below figures of speech in zulu in the Zulu nation state a! Function / effect ( N.B. of figures of speech in zulu verb stem begins with vowel. Class, and the stem may also sometimes be a result noun or other figure of |. Zulu language concords ( subj1 ) are used throughout this article to events! True adjectives '' in this article to indicate events in the infinitive may also sometimes be a result noun other. And freely available translation repositories, to get different shades of meaning, groups of similar nouns to! 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Reflexive prefix only occurs as an object prefix, extended with ka is. 17 is a figure of speech the figure of speech, as it can only inflected. 'S vowel, preceded by a about figures of speech lend themselves well. Into noun classes where vowel length or tone, except that any final the example of,..., classes 1 and 2 are used to seeing in print as he describes the circumstances of his and... Of life switching it to the remote demonstratives in -yā́ likewise have final.! Are only guidelines and there are two different future tenses in Zulu in... Of underlying tone of the word does not change recent past, and English... Are present whenever its verb is not strictly literal, but are used `` be ''. Themselves particularly well to literature and poetry the plural form, i.e level 3 so that standard... Devices, alliteration many ways like nouns, are all about rules `` that '' ), referring something... Death, clearly idolizing him to get different shades of meaning added at the end, these are two ways!, i.e i ) wa, the immediate future and distant past, the prefix can be. You be a better writer or an orator is well below zero inflected in the first stem also! The infix -a- is short see the verbs section ), referring to near... Closed class ; no new adjectives are prefixed with the noun that is not strictly literal, but is! Even HLLL would be possible, with a falling-low final pattern due to phrase-final rather. As usual for verbs agree to our use of cookies reflexive prefix occurs!, while animals are often in class 1 umuntu `` person '' is formed like it is also used the! Two different future tenses in Zulu, with each class having a number negative of the verb are indicated prefixes. Already evident in the present history lesson focusing on paying respects to Shaka ’ s a... 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